Typika Service Helpful Information Definitions and Resources

TYPIKA – Prayers, and hymmns from the Divine Liturgy chanted on days when the Divine Liturgy is not celebrated. In the absence of a priest, a deacon,or layman may lead the service of the Typika.

TYPIKON – The Book of direction or rubrics that explains how to celebrate the services. There are two major versions in use in the Orthodox Church and several minor adaptations, the Greek Typikon and the Slavonic Typikon.

HOURS – Short services – read at the First Hour (6:00 AM), Third Hour (9:00 AM), Sixth Hour (Noon) and the Ninth Hour (3:00 PM). The Hours are often combined to form the Royal Hours on the eves of major Feasts.

Prayer To The Holy Spirit – O Heavenly King, O Comforter, Spirit of Truth, Who art everywhere present and fillest all things, Treasury of good things and Giver of life: Come and dwell in us, and cleanse us of all impurities, and save our souls, O Good One.

TRISAGION – (Greek – Thrice Holy) A hymn “Holy God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal, have mercy on us,” sung during services and said during private prayer.

TROPARION – A short hymn.

THEOTOKION – A troparion in honor of the Theotokos. The final troparion of a set of stichera is usually a Theotokion.

KONTAKION – A troparion that summarizes the historical meaning of a feast. Originally a kontakion consisted of several verses. Today only the major troparion of a kontakion is still sung, with the sole exception of the Akathist Hymn, which is still sung in its entirety. The author of most kontakia was St. Romanos the Melodos, d.518.

Prokeimenon – A liturgical verse or scriptural passage sung or read before the apostolic reading.

Epistle – A writing directed or sent to a person or group of persons, usually a letter and a very formal, often didactic and elegant one. The letters from Apostles to Christians in the New Testament are often referred to as epistles.

Gospel – (in Greek, is evangelion which, means the “glad tidings” or the “good news”) is the message of Christ. In the Greco-Roman world, from the time of Alexander the Great and on into the Roman Empire, this word was used to refer to history-making, world-shaping reports of political, military, or societal victories.

https://www.fatheralexander.org/booklets/english/hours_typica.htm
http://www.saintjonah.org/services/horologion.htm
https://www.holycrossyakima.org/orthodoxPdfs/Orthodox%20Glossary.pdf

Aerial Tollhouses

During my journey to Orthodoxy, I came across the Aerial Tollhouses. I discovered this topic to be one of those hot button issues modernizers do not like. I found it amazing that while Christians complain about fornication and sodomy all the time, they care little for the remaining toll houses. Do you think this might be part of the problem?

1. Sins of the tongue, such as empty words, dirty talk, insults, ridicule, singing worldly songs, too much or loud laughter, and similar sins.

2. Lies, which includes not only ordinary lies, but also the breaking of oaths, the violation of vows given to God, taking God’s name in vain, hiding sins during confession, and similar acts.

3. Slander. It includes judging, humiliating, embarrassing, mocking, and laughing at people, and similar transgressions.

4. Gluttony, which includes overeating, drunkenness, eating between meals, eating without prayer, not holding fasts, choosing tasty over plain food, eating when not hungry, and the like.

5. Laziness, where the soul is held accountable for every day and hour spent in laziness, for neglecting to serve God and pray, for missing Church services, and also for not earning money through hard, honest labor, for not working as much as you are paid, and all similar sins.

6. Theft, which includes stealing and robbery, whether small, big, light, violent, public, or hidden.

7. Covetousness, including love of riches and goods, failure to give to charity, and similar acts.

8. Usury, lending money at intereset (orthowiki dropped this one), loan-sharking, overpricing, and similar sins.

9. Injustice, being unjust, especially in judicial affairs, accepting or giving bribes, dishonest trading and business, using false measures, and similar sins.

10 Envy.

11. Pride, vanity, self-will, boasting, not honoring parents and civil authorities, insubordination, disobedience, and similar sins.

12. Anger and rage.

13. Remembering evil, hatred, holding a grudge, and revenge.

14. Murder, not just plain murder, but also wounding, maiming, hitting, pushing, and generally injuring people.

15. Magic, divination, conjuring demons, making poison, all superstitions, and associated acts.

16. Lust, fornication, unclean thoughts, lustful looks, unchaste touches.

17. Adultery.

18. Sodomy: bestiality, homosexuality, incest, masturbation, and all other unnatural sins.

19. Heresy: rejecting any part of Orthodox faith, wrongly interpreting it, apostasy, blasphemy, and all similar sins.

20. Unmercifulness: failing to show mercy and charity to people, and being cruel in any way.

Toll Houses

Apostolic Succession Swedish Church

The Apostolic Constitutions note that Linus, whom Paul the Apostle consecrated, was the first bishop of Rome and that he was succeeded by Clement I, whom Peter the Apostle ordained and consecrated.

St Paul  5 – c. 64/65 AD Apostle
St. Linus † ( 68 Elected – 79 Died)
St. Cletus (Anacletus) † ( 80 Elected – 92 Died)
St. Peter † ( 39 Elected – 64 Died) Apostle
St. Clement † ( 92 Elected – 99 Died)
St. Evaristus † ( 99 Elected – 108 Died)
St. Alexander † ( 108 Elected – 116 Died)
St. Sixtus † ( 117 Elected – 126 Died)
St. Telesphorus † ( 127 Elected – 137 Died)
St. Hyginus † ( 138 Elected – 142 Died)
St. Pius † ( 142 Elected – 157 Died)
St. Anicetus † ( 150 Elected – 153 Died)
St. Soter † ( 162 Elected – 170 Died)
St. Eleutherius † ( 171 Elected – 185 Died)
St. Victor † ( 186 Elected – 197 Died)
St. Zephyrinus † ( 198 Elected – 217 Died)
St. Callixtus † ( 218 Elected – 222 Died)
St. Urban † ( 222 Elected – 230 Died)
St. Pontian † (21 Jul 230 Elected – 28 Sep 235 Resigned)
St. Anterus † (21 Nov 235 Elected – 3 Jan 236 Died)
St. Fabian † ( 236 Elected – 20 Jan 250 Died)
St. Cornelius † (6 Mar 251 Elected – Jun 253 Died)
St. Lucius † (Jun 253 Elected – 5 Mar 254 Died)
St. Stephen † (12 Mar 254 Elected – 2 Aug 257 Died)
St. Sixtus † (31 Aug 257 Elected – 6 Aug 258 Died)
St. Dionysius † (22 Jul 259 Elected – 26 Dec 268 Died)
St. Felix † (5 Jan 269 Elected – 30 Dec 274 Died)
St. Eutychian † (4 Jan 275 Elected – 7 Dec 283 Died)
St. Caius † (17 Dec 283 Elected – 22 Apr 296 Died)
St. Marcellinus † (30 Jun 296 Elected – 25 Oct 304 Died)
St. Marcellus † (27 May 308 Elected – 16 Jan 309 Died)
St. Eusebius † (18 Apr 310 Elected – 17 Aug 310 Died)
St. Miltiades † (2 Jul 311 Elected – 10 Jan 314 Died)
St. Sylvester † (31 Jan 314 Elected – 31 Dec 335 Died)
St. Mark † (18 Jan 336 Elected – 7 Oct 336 Died)
St. Julius † (6 Feb 337 Elected – 12 Apr 352 Died)
Liberius † (17 May 352 Elected – 24 Sep 366 Died)
St. Damasus † (1 Oct 366 Elected – 11 Dec 384 Died)
St. Siricius † (22 Dec 384 Elected – 26 Nov 399 Died)
St. Anastasius † (27 Nov 399 Elected – 19 Dec 401 Died)
St. Innocent † (22 Dec 401 Elected – 12 Mar 417 Died)
St. Zosimus † (18 Mar 417 Elected – 26 Dec 418 Died)
St. Boniface † (28 Dec 418 Elected – 4 Sep 422 Died)
St. Celestine † (10 Sep 422 Elected – 27 Jul 432 Died)
St. Sixtus † (31 Jul 432 Elected – 19 Aug 440 Died)
St. Leone (the Great) † (29 Sep 440 Elected – 10 Nov 461 Died)
St. Ilaro † (19 Nov 461 Elected – 29 Feb 468 Died)
St. Simplicio † (3 Mar 468 Elected – 10 Mar 483 Died)
St. Felice † (13 Mar 483 Elected – 25 Feb 492 Died)
St. Gelasius † (1 Mar 492 Elected – 19 Nov 496 Died)
Anastasio † (24 Nov 496 Elected – 19 Nov 498 Died)
St. Simmaco † (22 Nov 498 Elected – 19 Jul 514 Died)
St. Ormisda † (20 Jul 514 Elected – 6 Aug 523 Died)
St. Giovanni † (13 Aug 523 Elected – 18 May 526 Died)
St. Felice † (12 Jul 526 Elected – 22 Sep 530 Died)
Bonifacio † (22 Sep 530 Elected – 17 Oct 532 Died)
Giovanni † (31 Dec 532 Elected – 8 May 535 Died)
St. Agapetus † (13 May 535 Elected – 22 Apr 536 Died)
St. Silverius † (May 536 Elected – 11 Mar 537 Resigned)
Vigilius † (Mar 537 Elected – 7 Jun 555 Died)
Pelagio † ( 556 Elected – 3 Mar 561 Died)
Giovanni Catelin † ( 561 Elected – 13 Jul 574 Died)
Benedict † ( 575 Elected – 30 Jul 579 Died)
Pelagius † ( 579 Elected – 7 Feb 590 Died)
St. Gregory (the Great) † (Sep 590 Elected – 12 Mar 604 Died)
Sabinianus † ( 604 Elected – 22 Feb 606 Died)
Bonifacio † ( 607 Elected – 12 Nov 607 Died)
St. Bonifacio , O.S.B. † ( 608 Elected – 8 May 615 Died)
St. Deusdedit † ( 615 Elected – 8 Nov 618 Died)
Bonifacio † (Nov 618 Elected – 23 Oct 625 Died)
Onorio † (Oct 625 Elected – 12 Oct 638 Died)
Severino † (15 Oct 638 Elected – 2 Aug 640 Died)
Giovanni † (Aug 640 Elected – 12 Oct 642 Died)
Theodorus † (12 Oct 642 Elected – 14 May 649 Died)
St. Martino † ( 649 Elected – 16 Sep 655 Died)
St. Eugenio † (10 Aug 654 Ordained Bishop – 2 Jun 657 Died)
St. Vitalian † (May 657 Elected – 27 Jan 672 Died)
Adeodatus , O.S.B. † ( 672 Elected – 16 Jun 676 Died)
Dono † ( 676 Elected – 11 Apr 678 Died)
St. Agatone † ( 678 Appointed – 10 Jan 681 Died)
St. Leone † (Jan 681 Appointed – 3 Jul 683 Died)
St. Benedetto Savelli † (Jul 683 Appointed – 8 May 685 Died)
Giovanni † ( 685 Appointed – 2 Aug 686 Died)
Conone † ( 686 Elected – 21 Sep 687 Died)
St. Sergio † ( 687 Elected – 7 Sep 701 Died)
Giovanni † (30 Oct 701 Ordained Bishop – 11 Jan 705 Died)
Giovanni † (1 Mar 705 Ordained Bishop – 18 Oct 707 Died)
Sisinnius † (Oct 707 Elected – 4 Feb 708 Died)
Constantinus † (25 Mar 708 Elected – 9 Apr 715 Died)
St. Gregorio † (May 715 Elected – 11 Feb 731 Died)
St. Gregorio † (Mar 731 Elected – 28 Nov 741 Died)
St. Zaccaria † (3 Dec 741 Elected – 15 Mar 752 Died)
Stefano † (29 May 752 Elected – 26 Apr 757 Died)
St. Paolo † (29 Apr 757 Elected – 28 Jun 767 Died)
Stefano † (1 Aug 768 Elected – 24 Jan 772 Died)
Adriano † (1 Feb 772 Elected – 25 Dec 795 Died)
St. Leo † (26 Dec 795 Elected – 12 Jun 816 Died)
Stefano † (Jun 816 Elected – 24 Jan 817 Died)
St. Pasquale † (25 Jan 817 Elected – 11 Feb 824 Died)
Eugenio † (8 May 824 Elected – 27 Aug 827 Died)
Valentino † (31 Aug 827 Elected – 10 Oct 827 Died)
Gregorio , O.S.B. † (20 Dec 827 Elected – 25 Jan 844 Died)
Sergius † (25 Jan 844 Elected – 27 Jan 847 Died)
St. Leo † (27 Jan 847 Elected – 17 Jul 855 Died)
Benedetto † (26 Jul 855 Elected – 7 Apr 858 Died)
St. Niccolò † (Apr 858 Elected – 13 Nov 867 Died)
Adriano † (13 Nov 867 Elected – 14 Dec 872 Died)
Giovanni † (14 Dec 872 Elected – 16 Dec 882 Died)
Marino † (16 Dec 882 Elected – 15 May 884 Died)
St. Adriano † (17 May 884 Elected – 15 Sep 885 Died)
Stefano † (14 Sep 885 Elected – 4 Sep 891 Died)
Formosus † (6 Oct 891 Elected – 4 Apr 896 Died)
Bonifacio † (11 Apr 896 Elected – 26 Apr 896 Died)
Stefano † (22 May 896 Elected – 14 Aug 897 Died)
Romano † (14 Aug 897 Elected – Nov 897 Died)
Teodoro † (Dec 897 Elected – 20 Dec 897 Died)
Giovanni , O.S.B. † (18 Jan 898 Elected – 5 Jan 900 Died)
Benedict † (1 Feb 900 Elected – 30 Jul 903 Died)
Leo † (30 Jul 903 Elected – Dec 903 Died)
Sergius † (29 Jan 904 Elected – 14 Apr 911 Died)
Anastasio † (14 Apr 911 Elected – Jun 913 Died)
Lando † (7 Jul 913 Elected – 5 Feb 914 Died)
Giovanni † (Mar 914 Elected – 2 Jul 929 Died)
Leone † (Jun 928 Elected – Dec 928 Died)
Stefano † (Jan 929 Elected – Feb 931 Died)
Giovanni † (Mar 931 Elected – Jan 936 Died)
Leone † (3 Jan 936 Elected – 13 Jul 939 Died)
Stefano † (14 Jul 939 Elected – Oct 942 Died)
Marino † (30 Oct 942 Elected – May 946 Died)
Agapito † ( 946 Elected – 15 Dec 955 Died)
Ottaviano † (16 Dec 955 Elected – 6 Dec 963 Resigned)
Leo † (4 Dec 963 Elected – Did Not Take Effect)
Benedict † (22 May 964 Elected – 23 Jun 964 Resigned)
Leo † (23 Jun 964 Appointed – 1 Mar 965 Died)
Giovanni † (1 Oct 965 Elected – 6 Sep 972 Died)
Benedetto † (20 Dec 972 Elected – Jul 974 Died)
Benedetto † (Oct 974 Elected – 10 Jul 983 Died)
Pietro Canepanova † (Dec 983 Elected – 20 Aug 984 Died)
Giovanni † (Aug 985 Elected – Mar 996 Died)
Brun von Kärnten † (3 May 996 Ordained Bishop – 4 Feb 999 Died)
Gerbert , O.S.B. † (28 Feb 999 Elected – 12 May 1003 Died)
Siccone † (16 May 1003 Elected – 6 Nov 1003 Died)
Fasano † (25 Dec 1003 Elected – Jun 1009 Died)
Pietro , O.S.B. † (31 Jul 1009 Elected – 12 May 1012 Died)
Teofilatto † (18 May 1012 Elected – 9 Apr 1024 Died)
Romano † (19 Apr 1024 Elected – 1032 Died)
Teofilatto † ( 1032 Elected – Sep 1044 Removed)
Giovanni † (13 Jan 1045 Elected – 10 Mar 1045 Removed)
Teofilatto † (10 Mar 1045 Elected – 1 May 1045 Resigned)
Giovanni Graziano † (5 May 1045 Elected – 23 Dec 1046 Removed)
Suitgar von Morsleben † (24 Dec 1046 Elected – 9 Oct 1047 Died)
Teofilatto † (Oct 1047 Elected – Jul 1048 Removed)
Poppo † (17 Jul 1048 Elected – 9 Aug 1048 Died)
St. Bruno Egisheim-Dagsburg † (12 Feb 1049 Elected – 19 Apr 1054 Died)
Gebhard von Calw † (Sep 1054 Elected – 28 Jul 1057 Died)
Frédéric de Lorraine, O.S.B. † (2 Aug 1057 Elected – 29 Mar 1058 Died)
Gérard de Bourgogne † (6 Dec 1058 Elected – 27 Jul 1061 Died)
Anselmo da Baggio † (30 Sep 1061 Elected – 21 Apr 1073 Died)
Ildebrando , O.S.B. † (22 Apr 1073 Elected – 25 May 1085 Died)
Desiderio , O.S.B. † (24 May 1086 Elected – 16 Sep 1087 Died)
Eudes de Lagery, O.S.B. † (12 Mar 1088 Elected – 29 Jul 1099 Died)
Raniero , O.S.B. † (13 Aug 1099 Elected – 21 Jan 1118 Died)
Giovanni da Gaeta, O.S.B. † (24 Jan 1118 Elected – 29 Jan 1119 Died)
Guy de Bourgogne † (2 Feb 1119 Elected – 13 Dec 1124 Died)
Lamberto Scannabecchi, C.R.L. † (15 Dec 1124 Elected – 13 Feb 1130 Died)
Gregorio Papareschi † (14 Feb 1130 Elected – 24 Sep 1143 Died)
Guido di Castello † (26 Sep 1143 Elected – 8 Mar 1144 Died)
Gerardo Caccianemici Dell’Orso † (9 Mar 1144 Elected – 15 Feb 1145 Died)
Bl. Bernardo da Pisa, O. Cist. † (15 Feb 1145 Elected – 8 Jul 1153 Died)
Corrado di Suburra, C.R.L. † (8 Jul 1153 Elected – 3 Dec 1154 Died)
Nicholas Breakspear † (4 Dec 1154 Elected – 1 Sep 1159 Died)
Rolando Bandinelli, C.R.L. † (7 Sep 1159 Elected – 30 Aug 1181 Died)
Ubaldo Allucingoli, O. Cist. † (1 Sep 1181 Elected – 25 Nov 1185 Died)
Uberto Crivelli † (25 Nov 1185 Elected – 20 Oct 1187 Died)
Alberto de Morra † (21 Oct 1187 Elected – 17 Dec 1187 Died)
Paolo Scolari † (19 Dec 1187 Elected – 27 Mar 1191 Died)
Giacinto Bobone † (10 Apr 1191 Elected – 8 Jan 1198 Died)
Lotario dei conti di Segni † (8 Jan 1198 Elected – 16 Jul 1216 Died)
Cencio † (18 Jul 1216 Elected – 18 Mar 1227 Died)
Ugolino dei conti di Segni † (19 Mar 1227 Elected – 22 Aug 1241 Died)
Goffredo Castiglioni † (25 Oct 1241 Elected – 10 Nov 1241 Died)
Sinibaldo Fieschi † (25 Jun 1243 Elected – 7 Dec 1254 Died)
Rinaldo Conti di Segni † (12 Dec 1254 Elected – 25 May 1261 Died)
Jacques Pantaléon † (29 Aug 1261 Elected – 2 Oct 1264 Died)
Gui Foucois † (5 Feb 1265 Elected – 29 Nov 1268 Died)
Bl. Tedaldo Visconti † (1 Sep 1271 Elected – 10 Jan 1276 Died)
Bl. Pierre de Tarentaise, O.P. † (21 Jan 1276 Elected – 22 Jun 1276 Died)
Ottobono Fieschi † (11 Jul 1276 Elected – 18 Aug 1276 Died)
João Pedro Julião † (8 Sep 1276 Elected – 20 May 1277 Died)
Giovanni Gaetano Orsini † (25 Nov 1277 Elected – 22 Aug 1280 Died)
Simon de Brion † (22 Feb 1281 Elected – 28 Mar 1285 Died)
Giacomo Savelli † (2 Apr 1285 Elected – 3 Apr 1287 Died)
Girolamo Masci, O.F.M. † (22 Feb 1288 Elected – 4 Apr 1292 Died)
St. Pietro del Morrone (Angelerio), O.S.B. † (7 Jul 1294 Elected – 13 Dec 1294 Resigned)
Benedetto Caetani † (24 Dec 1294 Elected – 11 Oct 1303 Died)
Bl. Niccolò Boccasini, O.P. † (22 Oct 1303 Elected – 7 Jul 1304 Died)
Bertrand de Got † (5 Jun 1305 Elected – 20 Apr 1314 Died)
Jacques d’Euse † (7 Aug 1316 Elected – 4 Dec 1334 Died)
Jacques Fournier, O. Cist. † (20 Dec 1334 Elected – 25 Apr 1342 Died)
Pierre Roger, O.S.B. † (7 May 1342 Elected – 6 Dec 1352 Died)
Étienne Aubert † (18 Dec 1352 Elected – 12 Sep 1362 Died)
Bl. Guillaume Grimoard, O.S.B. † (28 Sep 1362 Elected – 19 Dec 1370 Died)
Pierre Roger de Beaufort † (30 Dec 1370 Elected – 27 Mar 1378 Died)
Bartolomeo Prignano † (8 Apr 1378 Elected – 15 Oct 1389 Died)
Pietro Tomacelli † (2 Nov 1389 Elected – 1 Oct 1404 Died)
Cosmato Gentile de’ Migliorati † (17 Oct 1404 Elected – 6 Nov 1406 Died)
Angelo Correr {Corrario} † (30 Nov 1406 Elected – 4 Jul 1415 Resigned)
Oddone Colonna † (11 Nov 1417 Elected – 20 Feb 1431 Died)
Gabriele Condulmer, C.R.S.A. † (3 Mar 1431 Elected – 23 Feb 1447 Died)
Tommaso Parentucelli † (6 Mar 1447 Elected – 24 Mar 1455 Died)
Alfonso de Borja y Cabanilles † (8 Apr 1455 Elected – 6 Aug 1458 Died)
Enea Silvio Piccolomini † (19 Aug 1458 Elected – 14 Aug 1464 Died)
Pietro Barbo † (30 Aug 1464 Elected – 26 Jul 1471 Died)
Francesco della Rovere, O.F.M. † (9 Aug 1471 Elected – 12 Aug 1484 Died)
Giovanni Battista Cibo † (29 Aug 1484 Elected – 25 Jul 1492 Died)
Rodrigo de Borja † (11 Aug 1492 Elected – 18 Aug 1503 Died)
Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini † (22 Sep 1503 Elected – 18 Oct 1503 Died)
Giuliano della Rovere (Pope Julius II) † (1 Nov 1503 Elected – 21 Feb 1513 Died)
Achille Grassi 13 February 1506
Paris de Grassi, biskop av Pesaro, vigde 1524 i sitt hus i Rom
Petrus Magni till biskop för Västerås stift som 1531 vigde
Laurentius Petri till ärkebiskop för Uppsala stift som 1536 vigde
Botvid Sunesson till biskop för Strängnäs stift som 1554 vigde
Paul Juusten till biskop för Viborgs stift (1563 Åbo) som 1575 vigde
Laurentius Petri Gothus till ärkebiskop för Uppsala stift som 1577 vigde
Andreas Laurentii Björnram till biskop för Växjö stift (1583 Uppsala) som 1583 vigde
Petrus Benedicti till biskop för Västerås stift (1587 Linköping) som 1594 vigde
Abraham Angermannus till ärkebiskop för Uppsala stift som 1595 vigde
Petrus Kenicius till biskop för Skara stift (1608 Strängnäs, 1609 Uppsala) som 1601 vigde
Olaus Martini till ärkebiskop för Uppsala stift som 1608 vigde
Laurentius Paulinus Gothus till biskop för Skara stift (1609 Strängnäs, 1637 Uppsala) som 1641 vigde
Jonas Magni Wexionensis till biskop för Skara stift som 1647 vigde
Johannes Lenaeus till ärkebiskop för Uppsala stift som 1668 vigde
Johannes Baazius d.y. till biskop för Växjö stift (1673 Skara, 1677 Uppsala) som 1678 vigde
Olaus Svebilius till biskop för Linköpings stift (1681 Uppsala) som 1695 vigde
Mattias Steuchius till biskop för Lunds stift (1714 Uppsala) som 1726 vigde
Eric Benzelius d.y. till biskop för Göteborgs stift (1731 Linköping, 1742 Uppsala) som 1742 vigde
Henrik Benzelius till biskop för Lunds stift (1747 Uppsala) som 1757 vigde
Carl Fredrik Mennander till biskop för Åbo stift (1775 Uppsala) som 1781 vigde
Uno von Troil till biskop för Linköpings stift (1786 Uppsala) som 1787 vigde
Jacob Axelsson Lindblom till biskop för Linköpings stift (1805 Uppsala) som 1809 vigde
Carl von Rosenstein till biskop för Linköpings stift (1819 Uppsala) som 1824 vigde
Johan Olof Wallin till biskop för Kungliga Serafimerorden (1837 Uppsala) som 1839 vigde
Hans Olof Holmström till biskop för Strängnäs stift (1852 Uppsala) som 1855 vigde
Henrik Reuterdahl till biskop för Lunds stift (1856 Uppsala) som 1864 vigde
Anton Niklas Sundberg till biskop för Karlstad stift (1870 Uppsala) som 1890 vigde
Martin Johansson till biskop för Härnösand stift som 1904 vigde
Olof Bergquist till biskop för Luleå stift som 1932 vigde
Erling Eidem till ärkebiskop för Uppsala stift som 1948 vigde
Gunnar Hultgren till biskop för Visby stift (1950 Härnösand, 1958 Uppsala) som 1959 vigde
Ruben Josefsson till biskop för Härnösand stift (1967 Uppsala) som 1970 vigde
Olof Sundby till biskop för Växjö stift (1972 Uppsala) som 1975 vigde
Bertil Werkström till biskop för Härnösand stift (1983 Uppsala) som 1986 vigde
Gunnar Weman till biskop för Luleå stift (1993 Uppsala) som 1995 vigde
Anders Wejryd till biskop för Växjö stift som blev ärkebiskop för Uppsala stift 2006
Antje Jackelén 15 June 2014
Nils Martin Modéus 4 December 2022 (Consecrated by Anders Wejryd)

St. Macarius and the Skull

St. Macarius the Great ca. 300-391

Abba Macarius said, ‘Walking in the desert one day, I found the skull of a dead man, lying on the ground. As I was moving it with my stick, the skull spoke to me. I said to it, “Who are you?” The skull replied, “I was high priest of the idols and of the pagans who dwelt in this place; but you are Macarius, the Spirit-bearer. Whenever you take pity on those who are in torments, and pray for them, they feel a little respite.” The old man said to him, “What is this alleviation, and what is this torment?” He said to him, “As far as the sky is removed from the earth, so great is the fire beneath us; we are ourselves standing in the midst of the fire, from the feet up to the head. It is not possible to see anyone face to face, but the face of one is fixed to the back of another. Yet when you pray for us, each of us can see the other’s face a little. Such is our respite.” The old man in tears said, “Alas the day when that man was born!” He said to the skull, “Are there punishments which are more painful than this?” The skull said to him, “There is a more grievous punishment down below us.” The old man said, “Who are the people down there?” The skull said to him: “We have received a little mercy since we did not know God, but those who know God and denied Him are down below us.” Then, picking up the skull, the old man buried it. (The Sayings of the Desert Fathers, The Alphabetical Collection:Macarius the Great, 38. )

Lefse – Making Scandinavian Gold

Lefse is a well known Scandinavian treat. Our family used to make the annual pilgrimage to Scandia Bakery in Stanwood, WA every Christmas Eve. We would stop on our way down to visit family in the Seattle area.

Years later, my wife and I decided to learn how to make Lefse on our own. We visited Lefse Time and watched youtube to learn how.

This is how we make lefse.

Ingredients Calculator

Boil a bunch of russet potatoes. Make them like you are going to mash them. Figure 2 pounds per batch.

Drain the potatoes.

Rice the potatoes. We bought a Norpro Stainless Steel Commercial Potato Ricer as it makes the job go much quicker.

Ricer

Cut the butter into pads and mix into the hot potatoes. We normally rice 8 cups into a Pampered Chef Batter Bowl. 1/2 Cup butter per 8 cups riced potatoes.

8cup

Once the butter is thoroughly mixed into the potatoes, we place them into a 32 cup tupperware bowl with lid. We add more of our buttered riced potatoes until full. I smooth the top out evenly and push on the lid. We keep them in a cool place just above freezing overnight.

32cup

I recommend having more of these large bowls than Lefse dough. The next day I cut the dough in half by eye. I then dump half of the dough into another container and set it aside. I mix in the heavy cream, sugar, salt and flower.

I knead the dough in my hands for a few minutes while working in all the ingredients. I like to pick the ball of dough out of the bowl and squish it between my hands in a ball. It should be slightly sticky but easy to smooth out.

I place the kneaded dough back into the bowl and begin rolling the rounds. Make a ball roughly the size of a satsuma orange. Roll it until it is a smooth ball and smash it flat slightly before placing it on a sheet of parchment paper on a cookie sheet. Repeat this process until all the dough is gone.

Get to rolling. It goes much more quickly to have multiple rolling kits and multiple griddle. The kits from Bethany are hard to beat. I prefer using the teflon coated griddle. It might not be super healthy but it does a great job and is easy to clean.

kit

I set the griddle to 500 degrees on the dial. Once it is heated up, I use the lefse stick to transfer the rolled sheet of lefse onto the griddle. It might take some mistakes to get the hang of it.

The lefse will start to bubble when it is cooking. You might peak under the corner to see how it is coming. I like my lefse to have golden brown spots. If it gets black spots it is cooking for too long. (At least that is my opinion. Once both sides are done, place the lefse under towels so that it does not dry out. Normally we put down a standard bath towel. Then we place a tea towel on top of the bath towel. The lefse will sit on this tower. Then I place another tea towel on top of the lefse. I like to place another bath towel over this. Lefse that dries out too much is no fun. Continue rolling and cooking until all the dough is gone. We let the lefse cool under the towels until it is barely warm. Then we take 3 rounds and fold them in half. We put them into gallon zip-lock freezer bags. Some we save in the refrigerator. The rest we freeze and enjoy all year.

Good luck with all your lefse fun!